Information on eye care and disease treatments

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Eye care information on diseases and treatments








Eye Care Procedures

Eye Care Procedure Overview

Taking proper physical care of your eyes is crucial to good vision. The eyes are complex organs that deserve the very best preventative care and hygiene that can be provided. As the anatomy of an eye is very complex a lot can go wrong.

However no matter how vigilante we are we all suffer from afflictions and infections of the eye every now and then. The idea is to be vigilante and know the symptoms of conditions that can cause trouble so that we can be aware of these threats to our eyes. Knowledge of the latest eye care procedures can also help you treasure your eyesight for the rest of your life.

In the past few decades there have been great leaps and bound in technology when it comes to eye care including the invention of contact lenses and laser eye surgery.

Spectacles

Spectacles, commonly known as eyeglasses are the least expensive and most common means of protecting and correcting our eyesight. Glasses are prescribed to correct all kind of refractive errors of the eye including astigmatism, myopias, hypermetropia and presybyopia. A refractive error simply describes the inability of the eye to focus.

Spectacles are made of lenses that are ground to a thickness that is representative of the power of the eye. In general there are two types: a plus lens and minus line. A plus lens is convex in shape and a minus lens is concave.

The power of a lens is measured in dioptres (D). The higher the dioptre count the stronger the lens in the glasses will be ground in either a plus or a minus strengths.

There are also many different types of lens types including single lenses for correcting astigmatism, hypermetropia, presbyopia and astigmatism and combination lenses that include bifocals and trifocals.

Contact lenses

The invention of contact lens was a landmark when it came to eye care. The invention of the insertable eye lens made the following eye correction therapies possible:

Corneal reshaping

Corneal reshaping, also known as orthokeratology and corneal refractive therapy, uses contact lenses to reshape the cornea. A series of stiff lenses are prescribed to gently mold the eyeball back to a shape where better eyesight is facilitated. The eyeball can be trained to correct itself and in some cases of developing eyesight problems replace refractive surgery and glasses as a treatment. This type of contemporary othokeratology utilizes reverse geometry gas permeable lenses to remold the cornea.

Cataract treatments

A cataract is an eye lens that turns opaque and blocks your retina from receiving images to relay to the brain. It is a major threat to human vision and currently afflicts about sixteen million people. Surgical removal procedures such as viscoelastics and replacement intraocular lenses are now used to replace corneas darkened by cataracts.

There is an infant type of blindness called blilateral congenital cataracts. Treatment is given to this congenital form of cataracts two months after the baby is born. Replacement intraocular lenses can be safely implanted in children over one year of age.

Contact lenses however have also been implemented in diseases such as dry eye, blepharitis and eye allergies.

Ocular Allergy treatment

The most common types eye allergies are:

  • Acute allergic conjunctivitis Tear film dysfunction (also known as dry eye syndrome)
  • Contact dermatitis of the eyelids
  • Blepharoconjunctivitis
  • Microbial keratitis
  • Vernal keratoconjunctivitis
  • Atopic keratoconjunctivitis
  • Giant papillary conjunctivitis

The first line of treatment in allergies is to remove oneself from the source of the allergies. Ocular allergies can also be treated with, nasal corticosteroids, mast cell stabilizers, antihistamines, decongestants anticholinergics and immunotherapyl

Laser-based therapies

The invention of lasers opened yet new areas of progress in eye care. Lasers are now used in the following procedures.

  • Keratoplasty that corrects the curve of cornea so hyperopia and hyperopic astigmatism are cured
  • Lasik (laser in situ keratomileusis), Lasek (aser subepithelial keratomileusis) and Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK) are surgeries for vision loss that utilize laser ablation.

Glaucoma treatment

Glaucoma is a worldwide disease that affects over sixteen million people. It is not a reversible disease. . However, as glaucoma is so prevalent research is being done regarding cures or treatment for these disorders. The process of reducing intraocular pressure (IOP) has proved to be most effective way of treating glaucoma.

INTACS

INTACS are polymethylmethacrylate segments that cam be implanted in the corneal stroma to smooth the surface of it. This can help improve the eyesight of people with conditions such as keratoconus, keratoconus with mild myopia and corneas that have been damaged by LASIK problems.

Care for diabetic retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy affects older people with diabetes. It can be attributed to high lipids in the blood. Loss of eyesight can be avoided if treated with lasers. There is also a treatment called macular laser photocoagulation that can help in case of macular edema.

Uveitis treatment

Uveitis is one of the main causes of blindness in young people. Medical treatment includes corticsteroids, sulphasalazine and immunosuppressive drugs.

Choroidal neovascularization therapy

Choroidal neovascularization describes an abnormal overgrowth of blood vessels and is related to macular degeneration. It is associated with other such as pathological myopia, intraocular inflammation, angioid streaks, choroidal rupture, chorioretinal scars and other disorders that deteriorate the cornea. Effective therapy involves action on the vessels with heat, light, ionizing radiation.

Cosmetic blepharoplasty

Cosmetic blepharoplasty is a surgical procedure for improves the look of the eye by raising the upper and lower eyelids. It helps achieve a less tired look.