LASIK eye surgery correction of astigmatism, near sight, and far sight

 Eye care lab . com
Eye care information on diseases and treatments

LASIK eye surgery

Lasik Eye Surgery Introduction

LASIK eye surgery is best for those who would prefer to discard their glasses or contact lenses forever. The term LASIK is actually an acronym for in situ keratomileusis. This is the most common surgical procedure used to correct refractive errors of the eye. It is also considered to be a safe and reversible procedure. It has gained great popularity because it works. The Food and Drug Administration in the U.S. have approved it as a cosmetic treatment for vision correction since 1995.

Correctible eye conditions

LASIK can correct eye problems such as astigmatism, myopia and hyperopia. However the effectiveness of the operation can depend on a lot of factors including the stability of the patient and the nature of the eyesight problem.

LASIK also corrects eye problems such as:

  • The damage that can be caused to eyes after a necessary operation like a radial keratotomyor the implantation of an intracorneal ring
  • After the removal of cataracts, penetrating keratoplasty or the removal of an intraocular lens implant
  • For specific refractive or strabismus conditions in children that can’t be remedied with contact lenses or spectacles

LASIK is one of those products that is always being developed so that postoperative vision can be improved.

LASIK History

The history of LASIK can be traced Professor Jose Ignacio Barraquer. This Columbia doctor was responsible for creating the myopic keratomileusis procedure in 1949. This process used a cryolathe for corneal refractive modifications.

The word keratomileusis comes from the Greek word keras meaning ‘horn-like’ and smileusis meaning carving. The name is applicable because the cornea is horn shaped in this case.

In 1964, another doctor named Krwawicz developed the surgical method of raising the corneal cap for removal of the central tissue. This came to be known as keratomileusis in situ. Another doctor named Pureskin refined the procedure 1967.

Later Dr. Luis Antonio Ruiz invented the microkeratome. This is an apparatus with gears that has automated the laser eye surgery operation. Automated procedures are known as lamellar keratoplasty or ALK.

The LASIK process

The LASIK procedure involves the lifting of the anterior flap of the cornea with a keratome and the application of an excimer laser to transform the stromal surface so that vision is corrected.

Preoperative Points

There are a few diagnostic points that need to be pointed out before the surgery:

  • You must be over eighteen years of age to experience LASIK
  • Cases must be chosen for LASIK on the basis of how successful the results may using other refractive surgeries like radial keratotomy, PRK, or laser subepithelial keratectomy (LASEK)
  • Patient counseling and informed approval is part of the process
  • A check of the refractive stability of the eyes of the person to be treated is necessary to ensure long lasting results
  • A thorough eye screening that includes many tests including eye dominance testing, visual acuity, refraction, computerized videokeratography, wave front analysis, slit-lamp examination, retinal evaluation needs to be conducted
  • LASIK is nor recommended for people with keratoconus or active corneal or ocular ailments
  • LASIK is not recommended for a pregnant or lactating women
  • Contact lenses cannot be worn during or after a LASIK operation as they affect the stability of the cornea
  • The thickness of the cornea must be determined before the operation or it may not succeed

Operative preparation and procedure

Before the operation is conducted your eye surgeon must ensure the following -

  • The equipment patient must be sterile including standarad skin and eye preparation
  • The eye must be desensitized with topical anesthetic drops
  • The patient must be given oral sedation 45 minutes before the surgery. The patient should be just relaxed and not overly sedated as the patient’s input is required
  • The apparatus for the laser and the laser suite must be successfully prepared
  • A keratectomy that prepares the patient for surgery must be performed so that the LASIK pneumatic suction ring can be placed on the eye
  • Laser ablation is the core of the surgical process
  • Replacing of the corneal flap is the final step
  • Immediately after the completion of the surgery the patient is administered one drop of antibiotic and one of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent
  • An orbit guard is placed over the eye, without any pressure patch.

LASIK benefits

Benefits of LASIK include:

  • Capacity to correct a wide range of eye disorders
  • Rapid recovery
  • An almost painless procedure
  • A simple healing period

LASIK downsides

Drawbacks of LASIK are

  • Risk of serious side effects such as blindness
  • It is expensive
  • Accidents with the laser due to technical in expertise
  • Problems caused by an unstable or technically challenged laser
  • Postoperative infection and other complications such as dry eye symptoms, forme fruste keratoconus, and diffuse lamellar keratitis

The good news is that most complications due not pose a threat to the person’s eyesight.